Therapeutic communication is an interpersonal interaction between the nurse and the client during which the nurse focuses on the client’s specific needs to promote an effective exchange of information (Videbeck)

Offering Self — Making self available to listen to the client

Open-ended questions — Asking neutral questions that encourage  the client to express concerns

Opening remarks — Using general statements based on observations and assessments about the client

Restatement — Repeating to the client the main content of his or her communication

Reflection — Identifying the main emotional themes contained in a communication and directing these back to the client

Focusing — Asking goal-directed questions to help the client focus on key concerns

Encouraging elaboration — Helping the client to describe more fully the concerns or problems under discussion

Seeking clarification — Helping the client put into words unclear thoughts or ideas

Giving information — Sharing with the client relevant information for his or her healthcare and well-being

Looking at alternatives — Helping the client see options and participate in the decision-making process related to his or her healthcare and well-being

Silence — Allowing for a pause in communication that permits nurse and client time to think about what has taken place

Summarizing — Highlighting the important points of a conversations by condensing what was said